Paul Delaroche Oil on Canvas 1833
On this day, February 12, 1554, teenage former queen of England Lady Jane Grey was beheaded at the Tower of London. Her cousin, Edward VI, named her as his successor on his deathbed in 1553. He was bypassing both of his half-sisters, Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, and Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn.
Many historians believe the king was pressured by his advisor, who happened to be Jane Grey’s father-in-law, the Duke of Nuthumberland. And although that may have played a role in his decision, I think he genuinely believed Jane Grey was the right choice for the role. She was well-educated and well liked, having lived with his step-mother and sixth wife of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr. It’s said her husband, Lord Guidford Dudley, was the most well liked man in all of England. And most importantly, she was Protestant.
Of course, she also had a very strong claim to the throne. She was the granddaughter of Mary, King Henry VIII’s younger sister. According to his will and the line of succession she was third in line. Had it not been for a change of heart to add his daughters back in line late in his life, she would have been the first in line. Many at the time refused to recognize the change in succession, making Jane Grey the most legitimate candidate in their eyes.
However, the line of succession set forth by Henry VIII was clear. More importantly, Jane Grey’s supporters abandoned her as soon as it was clear that the tide was turning in Mary’s favor. The young queen, only 16 or 17 years old, was left to face a charge of treason, along with her husband and father. The treason charge was based on the fact that she signed papers “Jane the Queen” during those nine days. Although there was an unsuccessful rebellion, Wyatt’s Rebellion, to fight for her cause, it’s generally believed she was not involved in any way.
There is an amazing account of the execution of Lady Jane Gray called The Chronicle of Queen Jane, and of Two Years of Queen Mary. Below is an excerpt from this anonymous work.
The hangman went to her to help her of therewith; then she desyred him to let her alone, turning towardes her two gentlewomen, who helped her off therwith, and also with her frose paast” and neckercher, geving to her a fayre handkercher to knytte about her eyes.
Then the hangman kneeled downe, and asked her forgevenesse, whome she forgave most willingly. Then he willed her to stand upon the strawe: which doing, she sawe the block.
Then she sayd, booke, good mayster lieuftenaunte, therefore I shall as a frende desyre you, and as a christian require you, to call uppon God to encline your harte to his lawes, to quicken you in his waye, and not to take the worde of trewethe utterlye oute of youre mouthe. Lyve styll to dye, that by deathe you may purchase eternall life, and remembre howe the ende of Mathusael, whoe, as we reade in the scriptures, was the longeste liver that was of a manne, died at the laste: for, as the precher sayethe, there is a tyme to be borne, and a tyme to dye; and the daye of deathe is better than the daye of oure birthe. Youres, as the Lorde knowethe, as a frende, JANE DUDDELEY.”
Here is a link to the book in its entirety: Chronicle of Queen Jane
Paul Delaroche was a highly lauded and critically acclaimed French history painter. His tendency to paint British historical events made him very popular in England as well as France. His scholarly dedication to historical accuracy made him popular with art critics and academics alike.
This painting, although showing one brief moment, has the ability to tell such a story. The former queen’s ladies wail at the loss of their mistress. One had been her maid since infancy. Lady Jane Grey reaches her hand out for the block, unable to see. Her white dress seems to remind the viewer of her youth and innocence, as well as her willingness to accept the punishment of her cousin, the queen. The executioner looks calm and patient, ready to do his duty.
It’s such a beautiful painting for such a dark moment. I find it so striking and lovely, and much more powerful than a gruesome, bloody painting would have been. And although Delaroche took some liberties with the setting, he did a superb job of depicting an important historical event accurately and wonderfully.
When you think about it, Lady Jane Grey is just another person destroyed in the wake of Henry VIII. His muddled succession wishes, the division between not only his counrtymen, but his own children in their views of religion, and his overall disregard for human life he seems to have passed down to his heirs. So today we remember Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Day Queen, her life given in the service of sovereign and country.